You know how cars' grilles have the manufacturers' trademark designs on them? Well, in General Motors Corp. v. Keystone Automotive Industries, Inc., No. 05-1712 (June 30, 2006), GM sued a manufacturer of replacement grilles over that issue. The replacement maker didn't actually put the emblem itself on it. It put a piece of plastic in the outline of the emblem, onto which the official emblem (which could be separately purchased from GM) could be affixed. The court called this plastic outline a "placeholder."
The district court granted summary judgment for the replacement maker on likelihood of confusion. The 6th Circuit agreed as to point-of-sale purchaser. They knew they were getting a non-GM replacement grille. But the 6th Circuit said that folks downstream in the river of commerce might be confused, and any shoddiness could be incorrectly attributed to GM. (There was also an issue of fact as to whether the placeholder was visible to downstream commerce waders.)
This is all pretty straightforward. But the silent "elephant in the room," in my mind, was aesthetic functionality. The Court noted in passing that, after GM filed suit, the defendant removed the placeholders in the shapes of the GM trademarks, and the defendant's sales of replacement grilles immediately went down. Turns out that buyers of replacement grilles actually DESIRE to have grilles with the emblems on them.
So why didn't the 6th Circuit "grille" the parties on this issue? It seems like a textbook example of aesthetic functionality. Recall that the Supreme Court in Qualitex Co. v. Jacobson Products Corp., 514 U.S. 559 (1995) , said that "if a design's aesthetic value lies in its ability to confe[r] a significant benefit that cannot practically be duplicated by the use of alternative designs, then the design is functional. The ultimate test of aesthetic functionality . . . is whether the recognition of trademark rights would significantly hinder competition."
Who knows -- maybe the defense wasn't raised. In any event, enjoy.