The Ninth Circuit today vacated a preliminary injunction prohibiting a defendant from making disparaging comments about a trademark.
The dispute in The Freecycle Network, Inc. v. Oey, No. 06-16219 (9th Cir. Sept. 26, 2007) garnered significant interest from First Amendment law professor types. The plaintiff is a company that encourages people to coordinate recycling efforts to minimize landfill issues. The defendant was previously affiliated with Freecycle, and had initially encouraged Freecycle to protect its FREECYCLE trademark. Later, he changed his mind and decided the public should be free to use “Freecycle” as a generic term to describe the sort of coordinated recycling services that the plaintiff performed. So he began communicating via the Internet encouraging people to use the term generically and to express his opinion that FREECYCLE didn’t qualify as a proper trademark.
The district court enjoined the defendant from making any further statements disparaging Freecycle’s trademark.
On appeal, a bunch of amici screamed and yelled about the First Amendment problems with such an injunction, but the Ninth Circuit avoided the constitutional issue by ruling that: (1) the defendant hadn’t used the mark “in commerce”; (2) even if there had been a “use in commerce,” there was no likelihood of confusion; (3) there is no cause of action under the Lanham Act for “trademark disparagement”; (4) even if there were, the plaintiff hadn’t proved that the alleged elements of its alleged cause of action were satisfied; (5) there was no false statement of fact (only a lay opinion about the legal validity of the mark) and therefore no Lanham Act false advertising; and (6) the Lanham Act contains no provision preventing the generic use of a trademark.
The Ninth Circuit noted, however, that it was expressing no opinion about whether the defendant’s activities were unlawful under any state law claims.